CHAT GPT best AI tool in 2024

CHAT GPT most helpfull AI tool in 2024

ChatGPT, a chatbot developed by OpenAI and launched on November 30, 2022, is based on a large language model that enables users to refine and steer conversations towards desired parameters such as length, format, style, level of detail, and language. This process, known as prompt engineering, involves successive prompts and replies to shape the conversation contextually.By January 2023, ChatGPT had become the fastest-growing consumer software application in history, amassing over 100 million users and significantly contributing to OpenAI’s valuation, which reached $29 billion. Its release prompted the emergence of competing products like Gemini, Ernie Bot, LLaMA, Claude, and Grok. Microsoft also entered the arena with Copilot, based on OpenAI’s GPT-4. However, some observers expressed concerns about the potential of ChatGPT and similar programs to displace human intelligence, facilitate plagiarism, or propagate misinformation.ChatGPT is available online in two versions, built on GPT-3.5 and GPT-4, both part of OpenAI’s series of generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) models, leveraging the transformer architecture developed by Google. These models are fine-tuned for conversational applications using a blend of supervised learning and reinforcement learning from human feedback. Initially released as a research preview, OpenAI now operates ChatGPT on a freemium model, providing access to the GPT-3.5 version for free users while offering the advanced GPT-4 version and priority access to newer features through paid subscriptions under the commercial name “ChatGPT Plus.”ChatGPT is credited with igniting the AI boom, fueling rapid investment and unprecedented public attention in the field of artificial intelligence.

Training

ChatGPT is based on particular GPT foundation models, namely GPT-3.5 and GPT-4, that were fine-tuned to target conversational usage. The fine-tuning process leveraged supervised learning and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF). Both approaches employed human trainers to improve model performance. In the case of supervised learning, the trainers played both sides: the user and the AI assistant. In the reinforcement learning stage, human trainers first ranked responses that the model had created in a previous conversation. These rankings were used to create “reward models” that were used to fine-tune the model further by using several iterations of Proximal Policy Optimization.

 

Time magazine revealed that, to build a safety system against harmful content (e.g., sexual abuse, violence, racism, sexism), OpenAI used outsourced Kenyan workers earning less than $2 per hour to label harmful content. These labels were used to train a model to detect such content in the future. The outsourced laborers were exposed to “toxic” and traumatic content; one worker described the assignment as “torture”. OpenAI’s outsourcing partner was Sama, a training-data company based in San Francisco, California.

 

ChatGPT initially used a Microsoft Azure supercomputing infrastructure, powered by Nvidia GPUs, that Microsoft built specifically for OpenAI and that reportedly cost “hundreds of millions of dollars”. Following ChatGPT’s success, Microsoft dramatically upgraded the OpenAI infrastructure in 2023. Scientists at the University of California, Riverside, estimate that a series of prompts to ChatGPT needs approximately 500 milliliters of water for Microsoft servers cooling. TrendForce market intelligence estimated that 30,000 Nvidia GPUs (each costing approximately $10,000–$15,000) were used to power ChatGPT in 2023.

 

OpenAI collects data from ChatGPT users to train and fine-tune the service further. Users can upvote or downvote responses they receive from ChatGPT and fill in a text field with additional feedback.

 

ChatGPT’s training data includes software manual pages, information about internet phenomena such as bulletin board systems, and multiple programming languages. Wikipedia was also one of the sources of ChatGPT’s training data

 

Features and limitations

Features

Although a chatbot’s core function is to mimic a human conversationalist, ChatGPT is versatile. Among countless examples, it can write and debug computer programs; compose music, teleplays, fairy tales, and student essays; answer test questions (sometimes, depending on the test, at a level above the average human test-taker); generate business ideas; write poetry and song lyrics; translate and summarize text; emulate a Linux system; simulate entire chat rooms; play games like tic-tac-toe; or simulate an ATM.Compared to its predecessor, InstructGPT, ChatGPT attempts to reduce harmful and deceitful responses. In one example, whereas InstructGPT accepts the premise of the prompt “Tell me about when Christopher Columbus came to the U.S. in 2015” as truthful, ChatGPT acknowledges the counterfactual nature of the question and frames its answer as a hypothetical consideration of what might happen if Columbus came to the U.S. in 2015, using information about the voyages of Christopher Columbus and facts about the modern world—including modern perceptions of Columbus’s actions.ChatGPT remembers a limited number of previous prompts in the same conversation. Journalists have speculated that this will allow ChatGPT to be used as a personalized therapist. To prevent offensive outputs from being presented to and produced by ChatGPT, queries are filtered through the OpenAI “Moderation endpoint” API (a separate GPT-based AI).In March 2023, OpenAI added support for plugins for ChatGPT. This includes both plugins made by OpenAI, such as web browsing and code interpretation, and external plugins from developers such as Expedia, OpenTable, Zapier, Shopify, Slack, and Wolfram.

Limitations

OpenAI acknowledges that ChatGPT “sometimes writes plausible-sounding but incorrect or nonsensical answers”. This behavior is common for large language models and is called “hallucination”. The reward model of ChatGPT, designed around human oversight, can be over-optimized and thus hinder performance, in an example of an optimization pathology known as Goodhart’s law.As of 2023, GPT-3.5, available in the free version of ChatGPT, has knowledge of events that occurred up to January 2022, and GPT-4, available with ChatGPT Plus, up to April 2023.In training ChatGPT, human reviewers preferred longer answers, regardless of actual comprehension or factual content. Training data also suffers from algorithmic bias, which may be revealed when ChatGPT responds to prompts including descriptors of people. In one instance, ChatGPT generated a rap in which women and scientists of color were asserted to be inferior to white male scientists. This negative misrepresentation of groups of individuals is an example of possible representational harm.In an article for The New Yorker, science fiction writer Ted Chiang compared ChatGPT and other LLMs to a lossy JPEG picture:Think of ChatGPT as a blurry JPEG of all the text on the Web. It retains much of the information on the Web, in the same way, that a JPEG retains much of the information of a higher-resolution image, but, if you’re looking for an exact sequence of bits, you won’t find it; all you will ever get is an approximation. But, because the approximation is presented in the form of grammatical text, which ChatGPT excels at creating, it’s usually acceptable. It’s also a way to understand the “hallucinations”, or nonsensical answers to factual questions, to which large language models such as ChatGPT are all too prone. These hallucinations are compression artifacts, but they are plausible enough that identifying them requires comparing them against the originals, which in this case means either the Web or our knowledge of the world. When we think about them this way, such hallucinations are anything but surprising; if a compression algorithm is designed to reconstruct text after ninety-nine percent of the original has been discarded, we should expect that significant portions of what it generates will be entirely fabricated.

Service

OpenAI’s former headquarters, Pioneer Building, San Francisco

  ChatGPT availability by country or region as of December 2023 

ChatGPT was launched on November 30, 2022, by San Francisco–based OpenAI, the creator of the initial GPT series of large language models; DALL·E 2, a diffusion model used to generate images; and Whisper, a speech transcription model. The service was initially free to the public, and the company had plans to monetize the service later. By December 4, 2022, ChatGPT had over one million users. In January 2023, ChatGPT reached over 100 million users, making it the fastest-growing consumer application to date. A March 2023 Pew Research poll found that 14% of American adults had tried ChatGPT. In July, Pew Research put the same figure at 18%.

No official peer-reviewed paper on ChatGPT has been published. As of April 2023, ChatGPT is blocked by China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia. Accordingly, ChatGPT geofences itself to avoid doing business in those countries.

  ChatGPT Plus 

  Homepage of ChatGPT as seen through Google Chrome on Windows 11 

In February 2023, OpenAI launched a premium service, ChatGPT Plus, that costs $20 per month. According to the company, the updated but still “experimental” version of ChatGPT would provide access during peak periods, no downtime, priority access to new features, and faster response speeds.GPT-4, which was released on March 14, 2023, was made available via API and for premium ChatGPT users. But premium users were limited to a cap of 100 messages every four hours, with the limit tightening to 25 messages every three hours in response to increased demand. In November 2023, the limit changed to 50 messages every three hours.In March 2023, ChatGPT Plus users got access to third-party plugins and to a browsing mode (with Internet access).In September 2023, OpenAI announced that ChatGPT “can now see, hear, and speak”. ChatGPT Plus users can upload images, while mobile app users can talk to the chatbot.In October 2023, OpenAI’s latest image generation model, DALL-E 3, was integrated into ChatGPT Plus and ChatGPT Enterprise. The integration uses ChatGPT to write prompts for DALL-E guided by conversation with users.

  Mobile App 

In May 2023, OpenAI launched an iOS app for ChatGPT. The app supports chat history syncing and voice input (using Whisper, OpenAI’s speech recognition model).

In July 2023, OpenAI unveiled an Android app, initially rolling it out in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, and the U.S. The app later became available worldwide. OpenAI is working on integrating ChatGPT with Android’s assistant APIs.

  Software Developer Support 

As an addition to its consumer-friendly “ChatGPT Plus” package, OpenAI made its ChatGPT and Whisper model APIs available in March 2023, providing developers with an application programming interface for AI-enabled language and speech-to-text features. ChatGPT’s new API uses the same GPT-3.5-turbo AI model as the chatbot. This allows developers to add either an unmodified or modified version of ChatGPT to their applications. The ChatGPT API costs $0.001 per 1,000 input tokens plus $0.002 per 1,000 output tokens (about 750 words), making it ~10% the price of the original GPT-3.5 models.

A few days before the launch of OpenAI’s software developer support service, on February 27, 2023, Snapchat rolled out, for its paid Snapchat Plus userbase, a custom ChatGPT chatbot called “My AI”.

  March 2023 Security Breach 

In March 2023, a bug allowed some users to see the titles of other users’ conversations. OpenAI CEO Sam Altman said that users were unable to see the contents of the conversations. Shortly after the bug was fixed, users could not see their conversation history. Later reports showed the bug was much more severe than initially believed, with OpenAI reporting that it had leaked users’ first and last name, email address, payment address, the last four digits only of a credit card number, and credit card expiration date.

OpenAI’s GPT-4 model was released on March 14, 2023. Observers saw it as an impressive improvement on the existing GPT-3.5 model for ChatGPT, with the caveat that GPT-4 retained many of the same problems. Some of GPT-4’s improvements were predicted by OpenAI before training it, while others remained hard to predict due to breaks in downstream scaling laws. OpenAI demonstrated video and image inputs for GPT-4, although such features remain inaccessible to the general public. OpenAI has declined to reveal technical information such as the size of the GPT-4 model.

The ChatGPT Plus subscription service offers access to a GPT-4-powered version of ChatGPT. Microsoft acknowledged that Bing Chat was using GPT-4 before GPT-4’s official release.

   GPT Store  

In January 2024, OpenAI launched the GPT Store, a marketplace for custom chatbots derived from ChatGPT. The company initially planned to launch the store in November 2023, but it was delayed. At launch, the GPT Store offered more than 3 million custom chatbots. Chatbots available through the store are developed using OpenAI’s GPT Builder system. Development of chatbots on the platform does not require programming skills. Two days after launch, the GPT Store offered many versions of “virtual girlfriend” bots, something that is against OpenAI’s terms of service.

   Reception  

OpenAI engineers say that they did not expect ChatGPT to be very successful and were surprised by the coverage and attention it received. ChatGPT was widely assessed in December 2022 as having some unprecedented and powerful capabilities. Kevin Roose of The New York Times called it “the best artificial intelligence chatbot ever released to the general public”. Samantha Lock of The Guardian noted that it was able to generate “impressively detailed” and “human-like” text. Alex Kantrowitz of Slate magazine lauded ChatGPT’s pushback to questions related to Nazi Germany, including the statement that Adolf Hitler built highways in Germany, which was met with information about Nazi Germany’s use of forced labor. In The Atlantic magazine’s “Breakthroughs of the Year” for 2022, Derek Thompson included ChatGPT as part of “the generative-AI eruption” that “may change our mind about how we work, how we think, and what human creativity is”. Kelsey Piper of Vox wrote that “ChatGPT is the general public’s first hands-on introduction to how powerful modern AI has gotten, and as a result, many of us are [stunned]” and that ChatGPT is “smart enough to be useful despite its flaws”. Paul Graham of Y Combinator tweeted: “The striking thing about the reaction to ChatGPT is not just the number of people who are blown away by it, but who they are. These are not people who get excited by every shiny new thing. Something big is happening.”

ChatGPT’s launch and popularity caught Google off guard, prompting a sweeping and unprecedented response in the ensuing months. In December 2022, Google executives sounded a “code red” alarm, fearing the threat of ChatGPT and Microsoft’s collaboration with OpenAI to Google Search, Google’s core business. After mobilizing its workforce, Google scrambled to launch Bard, a chatbot powered by the LaMDA LLM, in February, one day before Microsoft’s Bing announcement. AI was the forefront of Google’s annual Google I/O conference in May, announcing a slew of generative AI-powered features across its products to counter OpenAI and Microsoft.

Journalists have commented on ChatGPT’s tendency to hallucinate. Mike Pearl of the online technology blog Mashable tested ChatGPT with multiple questions. In one example, he asked ChatGPT for “the largest country in Central America that isn’t Mexico” (Mexico is in North America), to which ChatGPT responded with Guatemala (the correct answer is Nicaragua). When CNBC asked ChatGPT for the lyrics to “Ballad of Dwight Fry”, ChatGPT supplied invented lyrics rather than the actual lyrics. Writers for The Verge, citing the work of Emily M. Bender, compared ChatGPT to a “stochastic parrot”, as did Professor Anton Van Den Hengel of the Australian Institute for Machine Learning.

In December 2022, the question and answer website Stack Overflow banned the use of ChatGPT for generating answers to questions, citing the factually ambiguous nature of its responses. In January 2023, the International Conference on Machine Learning banned any undocumented use of ChatGPT or other large language models to generate any text in submitted papers. Samsung banned generative AI in May 2023 after sensitive material was uploaded to ChatGPT.

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